Tuesday, July 14, 2020

Treating Alcoholism and Addiction With Vivitrol

Treating Alcoholism and Addiction With Vivitrol Addiction Coping and Recovery Overcoming Addiction Print Vivitrol Treatment for Alcoholism and Addiction How the Medication Changes Your Brains Reaction to Alcohol By Buddy T facebook twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial policy Buddy T Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on February 22, 2020 Hero Images / Getty Images More in Addiction Coping and Recovery Overcoming Addiction Methods and Support Personal Stories Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Nicotine Use In This Article Table of Contents Expand How It Works Administration Is It Right for You? Vivitrol vs. Other Medications Side Effects Effectiveness View All Back To Top Vivitrol is an extended-release formulation of naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist used in the treatment of alcoholism and opioid addiction. While naltrexone hydrochloride is for both daily and once-a-month dosages,  Vivitrol is the once-a-month form of the medication. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Vivitrol for the treatment of alcohol abuse in 2006.?? How Vivitrol Works Vivitrol works by blocking the effect that opioids have on the brain, and reduces the cravings that many people experience after they quit.?? Physicians prescribe Vivitrol for patients who have already stopped drinking and using opioid drugs (such as morphine, heroin,  and prescription pain medications) and who have gone through a detoxification process. With alcohol, it is not certain how Vivitrol actually works, but it seems to change how the brain responds to alcohol consumption. Administration You administer Vivitrol by intramuscular injection once a month. One of the main problems with the daily dosages of naltrexone was medication compliance; patients had to remember and be willing to take the pills each day. With the once-a-month shot, medication compliance is less of a factor in the treatment plan.?? Once-A-Month Naltrexone Injection Effective Is Vivitrol Right for You? Patients already completely detoxed from alcohol and opioids are candidates for Vivitrol.?? It is not intended to help someone stop drinking. According to the FDA, patients must not have any opioids in their system when they start taking Vivitrol; otherwise, they may experience  withdrawal symptoms  from the opioids. Also, patients may be more sensitive to opioids while taking Vivitrol at the time their next scheduled dose is due. If they miss a dose or after treatment with Vivitrol has ended, patients can accidentally overdose if they restart opioid use. Patients with acute hepatitis or liver failure  should not take Vivitrol. Vivitrol vs. Other Medications Vivitrol is the first non-narcotic, non-addictive, extended-release medication approved for the treatment of opioid dependence. Methadone and  buprenorphine, also  approved for opioid addiction treatment, can be addictive.??  Methadone  is available only through specialized clinics.  Buprenorphine  is available through doctors offices, but it and methadone require daily doses. Side Effects According to the FDA, side effects of Vivitrol during trial studies include:?? Nausea and  vomitingTirednessHeadacheDizzinessPainful jointsMuscle cramps Other potentially serious side effects of Vivitrol include: Reactions at the injection site, which can be severe and may require surgical interventionLiver damageAllergic reactions, such as hives, rashes, facial swellingPneumoniaFeeling depressed??Suicide, suicidal thoughts, and suicidal behavior Alkermes, the drugs manufacturer, claims the main side effects are:?? Inflammation of nasal passagesIncreased liver enzymesInsomnia Effectiveness Vivitrol works best in conjunction with an overall treatment program.   Research shows it is more effective than medications requiring a daily dose and double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials show Vivitrol effectively prevents relapse and reduces drug cravings.   FDA trials found Vivitrol patients are  more likely to stay in treatment and to refrain from using illicit drugs and  36 percent were able to stay in treatment for the full six months without using drugs, compared with 23 percent in the placebo group. Naltrexone for Maintaining Drug Abstinence by Eliminating Desire

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Death Penalty Should Be Abolished - 1647 Words

Albert Einstein, a theoretical physicist and philosopher of science, once said, no problem can be solved with the same level of thinking that created it (Einstein). The intelligent man expressed his ideas clearly that if a killer kills someone and we also kill the killer then what would be the difference between us and the killer because we both are killers. According to the Death Penalty Information Center, 31 States in the United States allow the death penalty and 19 states do not allow the death penalty (â€Å"Deterrence†). The death penalty should be abolished in our society because it is not an effective crime deterrent, it puts a strain on our economy, it may result in the loss of innocent lives, and it is racial discrimination. Death Penalty brought to United States by Britain. When European colonists came to the new world, they brought the practice of Death Penalty. The first recorded execution in the new colonies was a Captain George Kendall in the Jamestown colony of Virginia in 1608. Kendall was executed for being a spy for Spain. In 1612, Virginia Governor Sir Thomas Dale enacted the Divine, Moral and Martial Laws, which provided the death penalty for even minor offenses such as stealing grapes, killing chickens, and trading with Indians (Part I†). The death penalty should be abolished because it does not reduce the crime rate, which means it will not scare anyone not do the crime. In fact, the death penalty may actually raise crime rates. According to the DeathShow MoreRelatedThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1192 Words   |  5 PagesNo Death Penalty Capital crime is something that is meant for people that are found guilty of committing a serious crime, such as murder, rape, or theft. These are offences that should not be taken lightly but by killing the offender, the government is carrying about the action that they are trying to prevent. Also, the wrong person may be sentenced to death. After this person is executed, there is obviously nothing that can be done for the terrible mistake to be reversed. The death penalty shouldRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?. The Death Penalty982 Words   |  4 PagesShould the death penalty be abolished? The death penalty is a â€Å"term that applies to capital punishment and is the worst penalty given for committing a murder or an atrocious assault.† (Black s Law Dictionary). Death penalty has been a part of human society and is legally approved for centuries. The first established death penalty laws date as far back as the Eighteenth Century B.C. in the Code of King Hammaurabi of Babylon, which codified the death penalty for 25 different crimes. Death sentencesRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?1925 Words   |  8 Pages Abstract This paper explores five published articles that report on discussion on the very old and yet to answer question of whether the death penalty in the USA should be abolished? The articles, however, vary in their stand on death penalty. In all article it is very different on publisher stand. They discuss thing argument with their own way and vision of thinking. Adina Nicoleta (2011) has raised question for fair trial on the proceeding of the criminal cases. In other article Maestro MarcelloRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1534 Words   |  7 PagesIntro The death penalty gives humans in our legal system rights to decide who deserves to live, a power only God should possess. Capital Punishment takes away our rights as equals. From its origins, the death penalty has been an inhumane, costly, ineffective, and biased form of punishment that needs to be abolished granting everyone their right to live. History of the Death Penalty Down through history, the death penalty has been adapted to be justifiable in the eyes of the people. By alteringRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1523 Words   |  7 Pagescriminals has been performed by nearly every society to date. The death penalty came to the Americas when European settlers brought the idea of capitol punishment from Britain. The ideology behind taking someone’s life for crimes they have committed is a simple one. If a person commits a hennas crime such as murder or rape, they shall receive the death penalty. In more recent times we now see many countries abolishing the death penalty. The trend suggests that the capitol punishment policies still implementedRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1306 Words   |  6 Pageschanged since the 17th century, so why not the age old penalty of death? Capital punishment in the United States is a highly debated topic. Arguments that want to get rid of this method of punishment usually mention th e many problems that capital punishment is plagued with. The death penalty has many issues that cannot be resolved, and since these issues can’t be solved, the death penalty should be abolished. â€Å"The irrevocable nature of the death penalty renders it an unsustainable and indefensible remedyRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1440 Words   |  6 PagesThe death penalty is a very controversial topic in the United States. It is implemented for the purpose of providing safety to the community and bringing justice to victims and their families. The death penalty is legal in thirty-one states (â€Å"31 States†), and there are over forty different types of federal capital crimes that are eligible for the death penalty. These include crimes such as treason and kidnapping that results in murder (â€Å"41 Federal†). However, many argue whether the death penalty isRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished968 Words   |  4 PagesEvery year, thousands of lives are legally taken under the death penalty. Why should we take more lives than the ones that have already been taken? The death penalty is the punishment of execution, carried out legally against an individual convicted of a capital crime. Its proponents argue that the death penalty deters other criminals who may intend to commit similar crimes in the future. However, there is little statistical evidence to support this claim. Also, execution eliminates the criminalRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?1350 Words   |  6 PagesShould the death penalty be abolished? The death penalty, also known as capital punishment is a legal procedure in which a state executes a person for crimes he/she has committed. This punishment has been used by many states, and is normally used for serious crimes, especially murder. It is also used on crimes against the state such as treason, crimes against humanity, espionage, and violent crimes while other states use it as part of military justice. There are mixed reactions on capital punishmentRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?1443 Words   |  6 Pages 6 Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished in the United States? Adalynne Francis CRJU 1000 Dr. Huss November 14, 14 Should capital punishment/ death penalty be abolished in the United States? Many feel that the death penalty is immoral and question whether the state and federal government deserve the right to kill those whom it has imprisoned. On the other hand, those opposed feel that by not acting upon the death penalty communities would plunge in anarchy and that by

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Nifta Case Study - 1341 Words

Osiel Leon Wednesday 6:30PM 11/29/17 ECO 2013 Term Paper Trade Deficit? Introduction Since Trumps election campaign last year, Trump has made it stone clear of his America first policy. The president has repeatedly slammed various trade agreements, such as the 27-year-old NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) pact, stating that they are designed to take away domestic jobs and has even tweeted calling it the worst deal ever made. NAFTA was originally developed with the sole intention of opening up the borders between Canada, Mexico, and the United States in order to increase trade and investments. Facts and reports have proven that the NAFTA has undoubtedly succeeded in these efforts by nearly doubling U.S. manufactures have†¦show more content†¦With the new talks additional provisions have been installed inured to modernize the agreement, such as including digital commerce, and implementing stricter labor and environmental standards. Many free trade advocates are untroubled by the talks as reversing the agreement would destroy 27 years of economic ad vancement, and extremely disastrous for the continent as a whole. Article #2 In the political battle of which trade agreements should be renegotiated, retained, or removed altogether, the Trump administration has taken actions in order to change the way the United States measures its trade deficit. The changes requested would make the countrys trading gap seem bigger than it had been in the past years. By manipulating the size of the gap, the Trump administration can over-dramatize the severity of the issue to gain support, use the modified information during trade negotiations, or even impose trade tariffs. Changes made include the exclusion of reporting re-exports, any goods first imported into the country, such as cars, and then transferred to a third country like Canada or Mexico, to the U.S. exports. This would give the illusion that the U.S. is importing more than what really is; inflating trading deficit numbers. Trump officials supporting this change state that the new approach would produce a more accurate picture of the value of the prod ucts produced in one country and consumed in another.Show MoreRelatedNifta Case Study747 Words   |  3 Pagescould force retailers to sell their products on clearance to beat foreign online competitors and further thinning profit margins. Without profit, U.S. companies will then be forced to either outsource their manufacturing companies overseas or worst case scenario, go out of business. However, Trump has proposed to tax U.S. companies that choose to build their plants overseas and add tariffs on goods imported from Asian companies that can manufacture goods at a cheaper rate. American retailers may

4p’s on Marketing Free Essays

The Marketing Mix Strategies 1. Product Nokia’s main product is mobile phone and it has a wide range of product portfolio including over a hundred devices. Nokia has produced the first mobile phone with the antenna inside, the first built-in camera, the first changeable faceplate or short-message chat function and so on. We will write a custom essay sample on 4p’s on Marketing or any similar topic only for you Order Now Nokia offers various mobile phones with varied quality, shape, size and color. Product segmentation is very significant factor in the mobile device market to reach all consumers. Nokia cell phones can be divided into three categories which is business line, the multimedia line and the connect line. The business line refers to the mobile phones that have priority functions such as connectivity (Bluetooth, WAP, internet connection), time management applications such as a calendar. The multimedia line is targeted the young users with N-series mobile phones that enable users to watch video and TV, play games, listen to music and the other features such as navigation, large capacity hardware. The connect line category’s users consist students who do not have disposable income or do not want to pay a lot of money for a mobile phone. These devices are still stylish and equipped some technological features such as internet, camera and mp3 player. The market researches of Nokia shows that the consumers make decisions in accordance with their own preferences, the product brand and the ability of the economy when supplied with the mobile phone products with the same quality. Thus, researchers in Nokia analyze the different personalities, divide consumer groups and decide what kind of mobile should be supplied to a particular consumer community. This process is products positioning. Designing professional mobile phones with suitable size that fits the requirement of the user and high technology-enablement is what defines the Nokia brand. Consumers view a brand as an important part of a product, and branding can add value to a product. Nokia keeps being good at molding the good brand image by injecting individuality into product design. For example, Nokia designers believe that the screen of a phone is the â€Å"eye into the soul of the product†. In marketing mobile phones specifically, each mobile phone has a product lifecycle. Nokia could extend the product’s life to 2 years. Successful products progress through four basic stages: introduction, growth, maturity and decline. This progression is known as the Product Life Cycle. The introduction stage is concept of phone, growth stage is Nokia E-Series phone, maturity stage is Nokia N-Series phones, and decline stage is Nokia 3110. 2. Price Nokia understand that most of the consumer demand for portable multifunction device, so the budget of the target consumer for specific model is considered. Nokia price the products by comparing to other products with similar function in the market. Nokia Corporation, which targets all customer segments, has a wide range of price variations from the lower price group to the higher price group depending on customer’s positions and needs. In the mobile phone market, the factors affecting Nokia’s device prices are the cost of products, customer demand and competition. Nokia initially sells products at a higher price to gain profit. It is to reimburse the cost of investment and cost of research and development. After a period of time, the company reduces the high price for beginning depending on their competitor prices and they make less profit. However, there is still a large profit because of increasing amount of sales. Because of Nokia is establishing as branded so it has the power to sell products at the price they want or even lower price when compete with other company. This successful price strategy enables Nokia to gain competitive advantage in the market. The major method for Nokia to pricing decision is the Brand Life Cycle Model. This model is to set different prices based on different life cycle of product. Nokia set a high price for new products, medium price for second line products and low price for third line products. Nokia pricing on the basis of sufficient market research on consumer number mature an advance technology that a product has, it will successful once the consumers love and purchase the products. For example, Nokia 88 series and Nokia 89 series, consumers who have strong purchase abilities treat the mobile phone as a symbol of status. So this kind mobile phone has a high price and long life cycle and will seldom reduce prices because they will not change their obile phone too frequently 3. Place Nokia Company, which doesn’t contact directly with consumers, uses some distributing channels to reach the customers and sells their devices through the mobile service operators such as Vodafone, T-mobile; independent mobile phone retailers such as Carphone Warehouse, The Link; some electrical suppliers like a Dixon and finally the Company’s web site. This selling policy carried out in the all countries in which Nokia has got the market provides to reach all consumers. Company has made ease of ordering Nokia handsets all over the country. There are around 1, 00,000 distributors of Nokia handsets across the country. Launch of â€Å"Nokia Concept Stores† which makes consumer feels that he or she is standing in the middle of the cellular tech-hub. Initially, the distribution strategy was focused on urban population negating growing demand in rural areas. In order to become competitive, Nokia reformulated its distribution strategy with more focus in the rural areas which were previously served by local competitors. The new efforts made in revamping distribution strategy helped boost sales and increased market share as well. Nokia choose its local business agent based on 5C principle. Nokia will decide whom to choose according to their capital, credibility, channel, cooperation and management. Meanwhile, pay attention to the network marketing and try to take intensive marketing strategy in all domains. For example, Nokia chose new channel pattern called FD, which has ability to change the provincial agent into funds platform. This saves a lot of intermediate links. Through this method, most of Nokia monopoly stores can acquire the ability of direct supply which ensure its good post-sale service. . Promotion Promotion was done by Nokia to increase sales and their publicity. For instance, Nokia offered precious gifts such as get a chance to win Yamaha bikes and Toyota Vios. This is to attract consumers to purchase Nokia mobile phone. During festival such as Chinese New Year, Deepavali, Hari Raya, Nokia will always hold a promotions. In advertising part, there are printed advertisements used by the company to promote their products. There are newspaper, magazines, brochures, TV, radio, website banners, billboards and others. In the advertisement, the Company always emphasizes their well-known slogan â€Å"connecting people† to build relationships, to bring people together, to collaborate and communicate. Nokia invites famous actors to become spoke persons of the products. This will attract more buyers because many people will support their idol. Retailers and mobile phone operators generally carried out sales promotion for Nokia’s devices. Nokia promotes the product to retailers such as Carphone Warehouse, then they promote to consumers. Sometimes they can be joint promotions with a bank or credit card company. Moreover, the mobile phone operators offer campaigns including mobile phone and phone line are the most popular way of promotions. Public relations also play an important role in the Nokia’s promotion strategies. The company supports financially some social programs such as educational activities, charities and accept being sponsorship for sports, music and television. Nokia has education, creative arts and civic engagement programs in 57 countries. These kind of social relations make Nokia more attractive in the mind of consumers to ensure positive opinions about the company. Social media is the fastest, easiest and most cost effective ways of publishing news for a global audience in highly visible way. Nokia have creates and use Facebook Fan Page, Youtube videos to pass the messages to a wider audience. For instance, Nokia N9 is one of the products that have been promoted. It shows functions and strength of Nokia N9 with innovative way and with a suitable music to draw attention of potential buyers. How to cite 4p’s on Marketing, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

True Beauty free essay sample

Is beauty the cutest cat moaning and stroking your leg when you have PJs on in bed? Is beauty an armless soldier coming back from the battlefield, after pushing away his friend at the moment when a missile was falling to the ground? Do you think the African children who have been suffering from starvation since the day they were born have the same standard as we have for estimating what beauty is? It is more likely that, rather than a charming body; a bowl of cooked rice with meat would describe beauty in their eyes. The question is what is beauty? Is beauty in the eyes of the beholder? It seems funny when people look back in time and see how people dressed, because beauty changes with time just like everything else. True beauty cannot be represented by a plain person spending his life savings to go through a painful briar patch of body modifications. We will write a custom essay sample on True Beauty or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He hopes he is achieving a perfectly sexy body that he believes will be physically attractive when judged by the standards that we have been brainwashed to believe by all the media today. The common concept of beauty is a perception evolutionally determined by the perspective given according to the era and the area people live in and the standards they believe. Curiously, is there a kind of beauty that all humanity agrees on, which is beyond life and death, evil and justice, gender and color that is not changed by time? Yes, there is! It came from the day that God created humans with the ability to think. Beauty is not in the face; beauty is a light in the heart. Kahlil Gibran (1) The best part of beauty is that which no picture can express. — P. C. Cast (Betrayed (House of Night, #2)) (1) True beauty shows neither in our appearance nor the clothes that we wear. It is represented by our inner spirit. When we turn away from our worldly obsessions and all they represent, then it is possible for our spirit to begin to dominate our behavior and thoughts. Our spirit is the blessed gift given to us by a deity. It is an inner power of humankind that unconsciously transforms us. Spirit is beauty that follows truth in our ego- driven flesh. This beauty has existed since the day we were born, but it only begins to awaken after we are mature enough and understand this revelation. Once we understand our true potential and begin to chase what our hearts direct us toward, beauty springs internally from us. It shines our light of inner beauty on the people surrounding us. Our society develops on a continuous stream of changing styles: curled hair to straight, motorcycles to cars. What value is there in these pursuits? They are nothing more than fads. Where can we place our eternal mark to show we have been here that will honor these past times and this beauty? Our beauty should be found in external, physical pursuits. It is in our spirit that we find true love, true beauty, complete fulfillment, and the source of our energy. If one day we dare to release the need to satisfy our worldly identity then embrace the truth and clarity of inner beauty, our whole lives will change forever. Bibliography 1. http://www. goodreads. com/search? q=inner+beautyamp;search%5Bsource%5D=goodreadsamp;search_type=quotesamp;tab=quotes— P. C. Cast (Betrayed (House of Night, #2)) (2) — P. C. Cast (Betrayed (House of Night, #2)) (2) . Goodreads, n. d. Web. 9 May 2013.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

buy custom The Great Depression essay

buy custom The Great Depression essay The 1930s were a significant decade in the economic and political history of the United States. This was a period of significant social and cultural changes instigated by the worst economic crises ever witnessed in the American history. This economic crisis later came to be known as the great depression. The great depression refers to the period of global economic depression that lasted from 1929 to 1939.Between the onset of the decline and 1932, the Dow Jones Averages had lost approximately 89 % of its market value.The overall unemployment rate rose to the highest levels, and the banks failed in unprecedented ways. Causes of the great depression The cause of the great depression was a combination of factors that varied from domestic to worldwide conditions. The top five causes of the great depression as indicated by historians and economists were; stock market crash of 1929, bank failures, and reduction in purchasing across the board, American economic policy with Europe and drought conditions (Kelly, Top 5 Causes of the Great Depression). Stock Market Crash of 1929 It all became clear on 29th October 1929 that the start of the great depression had begun. Within hours, the stock market lost all the gains for the whole year. The Dow Jones Industrial Average reduced from the previous day close of 260.64, opening at 252.6 it fell to 212.34, closing a bit up at 230.6, an 11 % loss (Amadeo, Black Tuesday). The stock market indices that represent the U.S. economy in terms of its industry, transportation and utilities are called Dow Jones Averages. They are calculated by taking the sum of the stock prices of the companies in each index, then the total is divided by the number of companies (Amadeo).on that same day, shares worth 16.4 million were sold exceeding the record of 12.9 million shares, which were traded on Black Thursday (Amadeo, Black Tuesday). Black Thursday signaled the beginning of stock market crash in the U.S. history (Amadeo, Black Thursday).two months after the original crush in October, stockholders had lost more than 40 billion dolla rs. Although the stock market started to recover on the losses, by the end of 1930, the market couldnt take any more, and America entered into the great depression. Bank Failures The failure of the Federal Reserve to support the banks led to the reduction of cash and failure of banks in massive scales (Dallas and Dallas). In the course of 1930, over 9,000 banks failed. Bank deposits were uninsured and, therefore, as banks failed people lost their savings. The surviving banks, concerned for their own survival and being unsure of the economic situation, stopped giving out new loans. This led to less and less expenditures (Kelly). American Economic Policy with Europe When the businesses began to fail, the government introduced the Smoot-Hawley Tariff in 1930 in an effort to protect the American companies. It is this Smoot-Hawley Tariff act of June 1930 that raised the US tariffs to historic levels in order to protect the American industries which at that time were facing fierce competition. This competition was from the European counterparts who had sharply increased their production after World War II. This was also in line with the one of the Herbart Hoovers campaign plede to protect the American farmer. He therefore raised tariff levels to the record high on the imported agricultural products (Kelly, What is the Smoot-Hawley Tariff?). This act led to the decline of the American imports from the Europe. The figures show that, from 1929 high of 1,334 million dollars, the imports reduced to just 390 million dollars in 1932.In addition, the U.S. exports to Europe fell from 2,341 million dollars to 784 million dollars. At the end, this act just cau sed and fostered distrust among nations leading to less cooperation in either the political or economic realms which in turn aggravated the great depression impact on the America (Kelly, What is the Smoot-Hawley Tariff?). Drought Conditions This was not a direct cause of the great depression, but it played a crucial role in the matter. The drought that occurred in the Mississippi valley in 1930 was in such a magnitude that people involved couldnt even pay the taxes or other debts owed to the banks and they had to sell their farms with no savings in return (Kelly, Top 5 Causes of the Great Depression). Other explanations of the causes of the great depression include The Death of Benjamin Strong Benjamin strong was the governor of the New York Federal Reserve Bank from October 1914 until his death in 1928. During his tenure, he had an strong interest in international affairs and promoted more effective cooperation among the worlds central banks (Benjamin Strong Jr.).The death of Benjamin Strong on October 16, 1928 led to the end of the golden era in America. In my opinion, his death marked the beginning of the united states treacherous journey into the Great Depression. Bens successors failed miserably. They didnt comprehend the Federal Reserves critical role in the maintaining the health of the banking system. When a light recession struck the economy in 1929, the new leaders of the Fed made a deadly decision. In 1929, the banking system desperately needed an infusion of cash from the Federal Reserve. Instead of putting money into the system, the federal reserve drained it out. (Dallas and Dallas 251-252). This reduction of cash in the banks caused them to fail on a massive scale. In few weeks, national bank runs were back but the Federal Reserve failed to help them. This resulted to banking crises that threw United States and eventually the whole world into the deepest recession in history (Dallas and Dallas).this resulted to banks failing, factories being closed and people losing their jobs. Why the Depression Lasted For So Long With the start of the great depression, there were so many losses for companies and institutions that they started to introduce their survival policies. These policies in return led to the reduction of consumer spending and therefore aggravated the process of depression. The issues that led to the prolonging of the great depression can be summed up as below; Unemployment Throughout 1930, consumer spending in America started to decline which meant businesses had to reduce the jobs and the pay for the jobs that remained. This led to massive unemployment. In addition, the drought in most of the Americas reeduced the jobs in the agricultural sector. This led to the decline of the consumer spending and reduction in the living standards of the people. Government Intervention The government intervention in creating an influence of price controls and public finance caused more harm than good. Most economists agreed that price ceilings created shortages of consumers goods and that price floors resulted into unmarketable surpluses without benefiting anyone (Hlsmann). The growth of the state increased the cost of production and taxation of capital induced capitalists consumed the wealth of investors and citizens. When the law of demand and supply was hindered, and unemployment ceased to be a temporary issue. The self-regulation of the market was also strongly interfered with by the labor unions which were acting under the protection and support of the government (Hlsmann). This led to the abuse of the property rights of the capitalists as well as the human rights of the workers and prospective workers when the unions pushed for wages way above the market rates. This made it impossible to hire all those who would have found employment and overall unemployment rate increased. With this, it can be summed that the government intervention in the solving of the great depression didnt just reduce the effects but on the contrary they prolonged the duration of the depression. Policies like Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act which authorized the highest taxes in history of America on imports of agricultural products and manufactured items, led to decline in the import export business which consequently deteriorated the business with the west. This led to the downfall and amplification of the depression all over the world. Technological Advancement Emil Lederer, argued that the unemployment was as a result of fast technological progress. He argued that the growth was so fast that technological advancement was so fast that the market participants were somehow intrinsically impossible. He argues that these changes replaced the costly human labor with cheaper machinery at such speeds that entrepreneurs could not keep pace with. This eventually led to massive unemployment and consumer spending which prolonged the depression (Hlsmann). Failure of Revitalizing Private Sector The governments failure to develop the private sector led to reduced employment opportunities which continued the recession era. The new deals greatest failure lay in its inability to produce revitalization in private investment that would have impacted on greater production and more jobs (Higgs).The most part of the New Deal relied on private confidence to invest. President Roosevelt undermined the business confidence and trust. By 1935, Roosevelt was less worried about business backlash and had confidence in the prospects for economic recovery (Brownlee).The men around Roosevelt were skeptical of the business ability to act in the national interest. This led to further investor mistrust on the government and discouraged investments. If the government had initiated the programs to create more employment, then the living standards of the citizens would have improved and consequently the consumer spending would have improved. This would have led to the market stabilization and end of the depression Buy custom The Great Depression essay

Sunday, March 1, 2020

How to Be Your Own Best Editor While Remaining a Writer - Freewrite Store

How to Be Your Own Best Editor While Remaining a Writer - Freewrite Store You’re not a writer! Well, at least for a time. You’re an editor. Today’s guest post is by Marsh Cassady. Marsh has Ph.D in theatre and is a former actor, director, and university professor. He is the author of fifty-seven published books and hundreds of shorter pieces. His plays have been performed in Canada, Mexico and the U.S., including Off-Broadway. You’re not a writer! Well, at least for a time. You’re an editor. For about eight years I was co-publisher of a small press and learned quickly what to look for in query letters, proposals, and in fiction and nonfiction. Yet I thought of myself mainly as a writer. The weird thing was that when I wore my writer’s cap, I didn’t think like an editor anymore, and I found I was just as puzzled as any other writer about what would be acceptable to a publisher. Then one day, it was like the proverbial lightbulb exploded inside my head. Hey, dummy, I told myself, you’ve been an editor for a long time and, in fact, still are. So look at your own work through an editor’s eyes. Seems pretty absurd that it took me so long to realize this and to approach my own writing as if it were a submission to the press or to the literary journal of which I was fiction editor. It’s a matter of roles, a matter of putting on a different cap. Of course, you’re still the same person- at least to a degree. Look at it this way. At work you may be an attorney and at home a mom, two vastly different roles. The same is true with writing and editing, each important but very much different from each other. In your role as an attorney you wouldn’t ground a client for staying out beyond curfew, nor would you threaten to take legal action against your three-year-old. So now is the time to hang up the writer’s cap and assume the role of editor. What being an editor boils down to is being objective. View your own writing as it were done by someone else. Is this person you’re judging a good writer? What makes her or him good? What don’t you like about the style, the organization, the content? One thing that helps is to put away your writing for a few days or a week. When you take it out again, you have some distance between you and your work. You aren’t as emotionally involved with it now, so it’s easier to approach it objectively. The more you can distance yourself from the work, the better. I knew a successful poet once who didn’t believe in revising her work. Whatever she wrote stayed the way she’d first written it. There also used to be a columnist for the San Diego Union Tribune who did the same. But most of us don’t work that way. Most of us have to revise our work at least two or three times- sometimes much more often until it meets our goals. In fact, in one of my books on writing I include an excerpt from my nonfiction that is my eighth revision! And still I continued to revise it extensively with handwritten changes from the top of the page to the bottom. What are the sorts of things should you look for in editing your writing? Is the work interesting? Is the piece something you yourself would like to read? If not, why not? Is it that you don’t like the subject matter? Years ago in the writing workshop I used to lead a man came to the meeting one night and said he was writing a film script. He said he didn’t like the subject matter but thought it would be something that would sell. Nope! He was a good writer but not for this. He finally gave up because it was too much of a chore to continue. Of course, it’s possible to do a good job with a subject you hate, but why do it unless it’s part of your job and you have no choice? Did you make the writing too formal, too dry, too prosaic? It’s important to hook the reader’s attention right away. Did you do that? Assume you’re an editor at a publishing company or magazine. Would you want to read through the entire piece you wrote? When I was a book editor, I knew within a page or two- sometimes less- whether I wanted to publish the book or not. Would you want to publish what you wrote? Was your lead the most effective you can come up with? How does the rest of the piece hold up? If it’s nonfiction, have you included enough specifics- examples or illustrations or anecdotes to support what you say? Is the writing easy to follow? Does it flow well? Are there any bumps, any distractions? If so, what caused them? Maybe you need better transitions. Maybe you just need to explain things a little better- more interestingly, more succinctly. Or maybe you have some extraneous stuff that doesn’t support the central idea. Is the piece well-organized? There are many types of organization, from chronological to spatial to order of importance. Have you chosen a type of organization that fits well with the sort of piece you wrote? Have you considered the organization or just written haphazardly as the ideas come to mind? The latter rarely works for a finished piece- whether a personality profile piece, a column, or a how-to article. You need to follow a particular type of organization that is appropriate for what you’ve written? For instance, you probably wouldn’t choose spatial organization for a novel- though it is possible, with one section taking place in New York, the next in Los Angles, and the third in London. However, within each of these sections you’d probably want to use chronological order and maybe even start the first section earlier in time than the next and the next. And you probably wouldn’t use order of importance in discussing a historical event. Is the writing coherent? No matter what you’re writing, you need to be sure you’ve tied everything together. Each part, in some way, has to relate to the piece as a whole. In fiction this means everything has to be important to the plot and/or theme, either directly or indirectly. All elements need to support the central idea. And generally, the less important a character or a setting, the less space you should give them. However, I did also say â€Å"indirectly.† Don’t throw away a scene that points up the character, for instance or explains the reasons behind characters’ actions. In nonfiction everything also should relate to the central idea. If you’re writing about a candidate’s stance on an issue, you wouldn’t usually talk about his hobby of collecting ceramic mugs from around the world. Is the writing clear? Is the writing easy to follow, or would the reader have to struggle to understand what you mean? Do you use language appropriate to your readers? For instance, you’d use different language for explaining what quarks are to a junior high class than you would to an adult education class.   Is the dialogue natural and appropriate? Does the dialogue reveal character?   Does it help create the proper atmosphere? If the scene is one of tension, does the dialogue reflect this? Does it help the reader understand the sort of universe you’ve created? Does the dialogue advance the plot? All dialogue should have a purpose; each word should be important for one reason or another. Does your dialogue sound natural? Although dialogue resembles everyday speech, it is very much different but still has to appear natural. In conversation we change the subject often and abruptly. We ramble. We use a lot of extra words. Your characters can’t do that, unless it’s to point up a character trait, for instance. Dialogue also has to be appropriate for each character, each of whom speaks in his or her own way. A recent immigrant from Russia would speak much differently than would a surfer dude. A person with a Ph.D. in physics would speak differently than would a short order cook- at least in most cases. When writing dialogue, you need to consider everything important about the character- background, education, present circumstances, personality, and the emotional content of the scene. Is the dialogue easy to follow? Even if your character has an accent, don’t make the writing difficult to follow. Readers today probably wouldn’t be happy to read pieces like Joel Chandler Harris’ Uncle Remus stories with lines like: â€Å""One time," said Uncle Remus...way back yander, ’fo’ you wuz bomed, honey, en ’fo’ Mars John er Miss Sally wuz bomed-way back yander ’fo’ enny un us wuz bomed, de animils en de creeturs sorter ’lecshuneer roun’m ’mong deyselves, twel at las’ ’dey 'greed fer ter have ’sembly.† Does any of the writing sound awkward? I’m nearly finished reading a novel by one of my favorite authors, but I was disappointed to see that at several times in the book he used passive voice. So far as I remember, he never did this before. And it yanked me right out of the action. So avoid passive voice. It should be cut.   Oops. What I really mean is: You need to cut it out! You also need to consider if the words you’ve chosen are the best you can come up with, that the work doesn’t sound too stilted, that what you write matches the overall style. An academic piece, for instance, would use a more formal style than a travel article. Check for repetition. Recently, I edited a book for a friend. In one paragraph of four lines I found three instances of the word â€Å"painting.† He objected to my editing out two of them. He said I was ruining his style. Uh, uh, uh! Repeating words or phrases calls attention to itself and detracts from the writing. Of course, this doesn’t apply to so-called invisible words like â€Å"the,† â€Å"an,† â€Å"a,† â€Å"and†, etc. But any time you repeat words like mouse or quark or sweetheart in close proximity to the original, you are risking alienating the reader. An exception, of course, is when you deliberately repeat a word for emphasis. The same, of course, is true of phrases. Unless there’s a good reason, beware of repeating phrases within several paragraphs of each other. Don’t Overwrite. Is there anything extraneous?   If so, cut it.   This is especially true in the matter of research. It’s been said that research is like an iceberg- two-thirds should be hidden beneath the surface. In other words, you should inspire confidence in the reader that you know your subject thoroughly, that you know much more than is included in the article, that you are the expert. On the other hand, you shouldn’t expect the reader to suffer through absolutely everything you’ve learned. Proofreading To many writers this is the most tedious part of getting a manuscript ready for publication, and it’s more complicated by the fact that when proofing our own writing, we often â€Å"see† what we expect to see and not what’s actually there. Also, proofing cannot be rushed. You have to be meticulous in doing it. One trick that can work well is to read the manuscript backward. This does away with expectations of what you think is there because now the material- though it doesn’t make sense- is completely new, and typos and small errors stand out more. For instance: â€Å"more. out stand errors small and typos and new, completely is.† When you do this, it forces you to slow down. Read your writing aloud to yourself or to someone else. When you read the piece aloud, you’ll be surprised at how many typos and other â€Å"pickies† you catch. This is because you’re forced to slow down and concentrate on each word. Thus, the little things that elude you in a silent readthrough now become much more apparent. Finally, if you can, put the manuscript away one more time and then back to it again in a day or a week. Okay, now you’ve done your stint as an editor. Take off the editor’s cap, hang it up, and grab the writer’s cap from the rack. You are not an editor any longer- at least for now. Today you’re a writer. Good luck with the new piece.       Marsh Cassady has Ph.D in theatre and is a former actor, director, and university professor. He is the author of fifty-seven published books and hundreds of shorter pieces. His plays have been performed in Canada, Mexico and the U.S., including Off-Broadway. For about eight years he was co-publisher of a small press and a literary journal. He has also taught creative writing at the University of California, San Diego, and for thirty-five years led all-genre writing workshops.